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音乐史

为什么纽约市需要向我们甜蜜的女士节Billie Holiday致敬(更新:他们正在建造!)

更新(2019年3月11日): 该市已宣布 它将委托Billie Holiday纪念馆,并为 伊丽莎白·詹宁斯·格雷厄姆凯瑟琳·沃克 和 HelenRodríguez-Trías博士。

Graham, 的 subject of a landmark case that desegregated New York City mass transportation, 也被我们的读者建议.

城市 previously announced the creation of a monument to 雪莉·奇斯霍尔姆(Shirley Chisholm)。

Here’s our pitch for a 纪念碑 to Holiday 跑回来了in July 2018.

 她建了纽约市!运动, a new program from 的 Mayor’s Office 和 的 Department of Cultural Affairs, seeks to commission “a public 纪念碑 or artwork on city property with a focus on women’s history.” 鲍里男孩 would like to put our two cents into this debate 和 我们最近为该荣誉颁发了五名提名人.

Throughout 的 month, we will shed a little light on a few of 的se choices. And we’d love to hear yours! Leave a choice in 的 comments section 和 we will compile 的m in a couple weeks in a dedicated 文章. At 的 end of 的 month, we’ll send all 的 choices — both yours 和 ours — to 的 nomination committee.

Artists 和 entertainers make natural candidates for statues 和 public commemorations as many become immortal with 的 passage of time, 的ir influence imprinted on future generations. 的re are several such honors for artists in New York — all men (but one).

Among 的 city’s statuary entertainers are 埃德温·布斯,成龙·格里森,埃林顿公爵,乔治·科恩,路德维希·范·贝多芬,威廉·莎士比亚 and countless other writers 和 composers (许多在中央公园)。但是在布莱恩特公园(Bryant Park),人们可以找到一位致力于女作家的半身像- 格特鲁德·斯坦.

New York City needs another! And we nominate one of 的 greatest vocalists in American popular music – 比利假日。

1946年6月,纽约,她的狗先生,由美国国会图书馆提供

Her impact upon American music is profound, changing 的 way vocalists interpret songs, bringing out extraordinary subtlety 和 richness beyond 的 lyrics 和 instrumentation.  And she did it within a set of important Manhattan music venues, from Midtown to Harlem. Hers is 的 story of New York’s own jazz legacy.

Her story is full of drama 和 paradox, moments of sadness, others of pure ecstasy, in 的 midst of New York’s history in 的 making. At its core, her biography is a reflection of 的 black experience in 的 1930s 和 40s 和 how separations of race effected 的 music scene, how those impressions still reverberate today.

她出生于Eleanora Fagan in Philadelphia on April 7, 1915, 和 first arrived in New York as a teenager. Her first home 原为 in Harlem, a neighborhood in 的 midst of a renaissance of black art, music 和 literature.

她在这段期间在哈林(Harlem)的许多一流音乐场所工作(小天堂,科文斯), singing at 2-3 in 的 morning, working for tips, hoofing from table to table.

She experimented with her voice, understanding what captivated an audience, learning to interact with gangsters, randy young men, even white movie stars. She shook off her ragged appearance, recognized that a little glamour, a fancy dress, would also help sell her songs. It 原为 at this time she took her stage name Billie, from a white silent film actress named Billie Dove, 和 Holiday from her father.

她学会了做风格音乐,并以与爵士乐器演奏者相同的方式使用人声。她从前辈的精确的每音符风格退后,发现了将音乐戏剧化的方法,有些人将其称为or谐或低调的音调,也许比传统的女歌手要来的要落后一拍。到1930年代中期,她已经已经发明了一种独特的音乐风格,在哥伦比亚唱片公司的唱片中得到了体现。

1937年,她开始与著名的大型乐队合作巡回演出-首先是 贝西伯爵, 的n 肖阿蒂. On 的 road, she came up immediately against 的 racial 和 gender prejudices of 的 day.

可悲的是,她甚至不需要离开纽约就可以体验到这一点。  In 的 late 1930s, most hotels in New York City had strict segregation policies. One October evening in 1938, 的 manager asked Shaw to tell his young singer to use 的 freight elevator as 的y did not want guest to think that a black woman 原为 staying 的re.

咖啡馆协会假期表演

But a life changing experience 原为 just around 的 corner — a Greenwich Village club named 咖啡协会, a venue specifically designed to mix black 和 white audiences.  的 novelty of it all brought a lot of attention to 咖啡协会, as did its coterie of progressive celebrities. And this brought attention to Holiday, just at 的 moment that many of her recordings were now being listened to across 的 country.

For in April 1939 a Jewish songwriter named Abel Meerepol asked Holiday to perform a new song – one about racism in 的 South. “If you think it’s okay man, I’ll do it,” said Billie.

“Strange Fruit” 原为 a stark 和 graphic song about 的 lynching of black men. She would sing ‘Strange Fruit’ for 的 remainder of her career, a rare political message in a career mostly comprised of swing 和 torch songs.

In 的 1940s Holiday became one of America’s most famous recording artists, but 的 real magic happened inside a cluster of smoky music clubs around 的 area of 52nd Street, between Fifth 和 Seventh Avenues. 比利假日 原为 秋千街.  She played most of 的se places during 的 mid 和 late 1940s — 的 Onyx Club, Kelly’s Stable, 的 Famous Door and 俱乐部失败.

她过着夜猫子的生活,眼睛从浓烟中刺痛,不断饮酒。但是粉丝们显然会注意到,到了玛瑙时,她的舞台下举止有了惊人的变化。在1940年代的某个时候,她开始转动海洛因,最终在演出前将其拍摄。即使她毕业于更大的,更“受人尊敬的”场所,例如市政厅甚至卡内基音乐厅(下图,1946年),她的成瘾也一生都在恶化。

国会图书馆

Perhaps due to a renewed interest by 的 curious public (her substance-abuse troubles had made 的 papers), 的 Carnegie Hall concerts were sold out for weeks, 和 additional seats were placed on 的 aisle, with even 600 people sitting on 的 stage behind her.

That first night, she sang 21 song 和 6 different encores. People claim it 原为 的 greatest concert she ever gave.

In 1958 Frank Sinatra said of her: “With few exceptions every major pop singer in 的 US during her generation has been touched in some way by her genius. It is 比利假日 who 原为, 和 still remains 的 greatest single musical influence on me. Lady Day is unquestionably 的 most important influence on American popular singing of 的 last twenty years.”

Holiday died on July 16, 1959, leaving 的 world countless recordings of undeniably beauty (not to mention her biography Lady Sings 的 Blues)。

A public memorial to 比利假日 would serve not only as a tribute to her impact on modern music, but would also function as a tribute to New York City’s forgotten musical districts — Harlem’s 133rd Street, Midtown’s 52nd Street, 的 Village’s integrated music clubs.

有关假日苦乐参半的更多信息,请查看我们的播客 比利假日的纽约。 Portions of 的 文章 above are taken from this podcast. You can hear 的 entire thing here:

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